Statements are declaritive.
Propositions are the meanings of statements. For instance, the proposition is the whiteness of actual snow as opposed to the declarative statement, “Snow is white.” However, some people mean statement when they say proposition.
Logic deals primarily with statements since propositions are difficult to deal with directly.
- Language plays a key role in logic.
- There are 3 possible roles of language: inform, express, direct
- Word definitions are key to language.
- Equivocation/Ambiguity/Amphibole Example: “Evolution is change in living things from generation to generation.” So the same word is used to describe small changes that can be observed that are caused by a loss of information and a fantastic story that has never been observed on any scale where information is constantly added to living cells by random chance and molecules-to-man evolution actually taking place. Adaptation is observed while molecules-to-man evolution is scientifically impossible. (read)(read)(read)
- Lexical definitions = define words already commonly known.
- Stipulative definitions = define words newly introduced to a dialogue.
- Pecising definistions = bring more specific meaning to a term in use.
- Clarify through questions = define by asking for clarification of meaning
- Loving demeanor (not turning a discussion into a game with winners and losers and not allowing the other person to do this either.)
- Don’t waste time trying to refute every point. When someone is in error, focus on how their entire worldview/paradigm/fake-reality is out of sync with reality.